The country is still the ancestral homeland for over 200 ethnic groups, most descended from kingdoms established long before the Europeans arrived in the late 1800s.
The Kingdom of Luba became the most vital commercial center for the trade of ivory and other goods, and by the 16th century had emerged with a strong government. Long distance trade ultimately aided in the downfall of Luba, and in 1899 the empire was split in two before being completely absorbed into the Belgian Congo Free State.
Upon hearing Stanley's report regarding the indigenous natural attributes of the land, King Leopold subsequently took control, imposing a system of forced labor that was the catalyst for the first human rights movement in the 20th century. Subsequently, he was forced to grant colonial status to the then Belgium Congo in 1908.
After gaining complete independence from Belgium in 1960, a non-stop parade of assassinations, civil wars, coups, corrupt dictators, brutal murders, rebellions and needless bloodshed plagued the land.
In 1971, President Mobutu Sese Seko renamed the country to the Republic of Zaire. Under Mobutu's command, despite an achievement of both peace and stability, the government was responsible for severe human rights violations and a cult of personality and corruption. It was not uncommon to see citizens walk the streets wearing clothing with his likeness emblazoned on them.
Opponents began demanding for a reform in 1990, with tensions flaring by 1996 as the Rwandan Civil War and genocide poured into Zaire.