Questions answered here

- match the time bar color to the map color -
Current Dates and Times
across South America...

Across South America, both Daylight Saving Time and Standard Time are in effect.

When countries, islands and regions are using DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME it is indicated by a red (DST).

Although variations may apply, and often with little notice, Daylight Saving Time is not observed in Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, the Galapagos Islands, Guyana, Peru, South Georgia Island, Suriname and Venezuela.

Time in Brazil is particularly complicated as Brazil spans four major timezones. Sao Paolo and Rio de Janiero are both located in BRST or BRT timezone depending on the observence of DST, putting them either 3 or 2 hours behind UTC.

The small island of Fernando de Noronha, Brazil is 2 hours behind UTC. The two western timezones of Brazil, Amazonas Time and Acre Time are both 4 hours behind UTC and do not observe DST.

Note that Venezuela is 4.5 hours behind UTC.

Additional details on world timezones
an update...

The worldwide standard for coordinated universal time, formerly known as GMT (Greenwich Mean Time), is now abbreviated as UTC (Coordinated Universal Time).

Some sources still refer to it as UTC/GMT and some web browsers, e.g. Mozilla Firefox, still display it as GMT.

The UTC Time (shown directly below) is the standard time zone upon which all other worldwide time zones are based. It never observes daylight saving time.

UTC at Greenwich, England (DST)

Falkland Islands in 2012
an update...

The government of the Falkland Islands has determined that the country will stay on Daylight Savings Time in 2012. Doing so will allow the country more time to contact the United Kingdom and other countries in Europe during the working day.

Check back in April of 2013 to see if this trial switch is made permanent.
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Galapagos Islands
GALT - 6 hours from UTC

VET - 4:30 hours from UTC

Suriname, French Guiana
SRT, GFT - 3 hours from UTC

Recife, Brazil
BRT - 3 hours from UTC

light green
Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
COT, ECT, PET - 5 hours from UTC

blue bar
NW Brazil - Manaus
AMT - 4 hours from UTC

dark green
SE Brazil - Rio de Janiero
BRST - 2 hours from UTC BRT - 3 hours from UTC

purple red
Falkland Islands  (DST)
FKST - 3 hours from UTC FKST - 3 hours from UTC

Easter Island
EASST - 5 hours from UTC EAST - 6 hours from UTC

Bolivia, Guyana
BOT, GYT - 4 hours from UTC

light orange
Paraguay, Cuiaba (Brazil)
PYST - 3 hours from UTC PYT - 4 hours from UTC

South Georgia Island
FNT - 2 hours from UTC

CLST - 3 hours from UTC CLT - 4 hours from UTC

ART - 3 hours from UTC

UYST - 3 hours from UTC UYT - 3 hours from UTC

Timezone Abbreviations

GALT (Galapagos Time) BOT (Bolivia Time) GYT (Guyana Time)
SRT (Suriname Time) GFT (French Guyana Time) BRST BRT (Brasillia Summer Time) (Brasillia Time)
COT (Colombia Time) ECT (Ecuador Time) PET (Peru Time)
PYST PYT (Paraguay Summer Time) (Paraguay Time) FKST FKST (Falkland Islands Summer Time) (Falkland Islands Summer Time) ART (Argentina Time)
FNT (Fernando de Noronha Time) VET (Venezuela Time) AMT (Amazonas Time)
CLST CLT (Chile Summer Time) (Chile Time) EASST EAST (Easter Island Summer Time) (Easter Island Time) UYST UST (Uruguay Summer Time) (Uruguay Time)
(DST) Daylight Saving Time