Over the past century, the planet has seen its temperature gradually increase. There have been numerous arguments on the exact cause of this sudden yet alarming increase in temperature. Some people base it on the degradation of the Ozone layer while others deny the temperature increase entirely. However, for most scientists the principal cause of the increase in temperature is the increase in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. According to scientists, these greenhouse gases which consist of carbon dioxide have a blanket effect where they trap solar energy from leaving the atmosphere. Due to pressure from the public and knowledge of the severity of the ultimate result of climate change, governments and other international organizations have come together and put in place policies to negate climate change and its effects.
4. Muslim Seven Year Action Plan on Climate Change
The Muslim Seven Year Action Plan on Climate Change is a binding agreement between the Islamic people meant to encourage environmentally-friendly practices among Muslims in the world. The policies are implemented by the Muslim Association for Climate Change Action (MACCA).The conference attracts Muslim scholars, scientists, and political leaders who meet annually to analyze the steps taken and also to revise the proposals.
3. International Carbon Action Partnership
The International Carbon Action Partnership (ICAP) is a forum bringing together different countries and public authorities which have already enforced or are planning to enforce emission trading system (ETS). It was founded in 2007 in Lebanon by leaders from more than fifteen countries. ICAP allows members to share best practices and discuss ETS with the aim of coming up with the operational global carbon market. The duty of ICAP looks into three pillars of technical dialogue, ETS know how, and capacity building. It also focuses on facilitation of future linking, trading programs, and building of strong partnership amongst countries. The partnership is currently made up of 31 members with four observers.
2. Kyoto Protocol
The Kyoto Protocol is an internationally binding treaty signed in 1997 with the aim of reducing the global emission of greenhouse gases and curb the effects of climate change. The involved leaders met and signed the treaty in the Japanese city of Kyoto hence the treaty derives its name. In 2009, 187 countries had ratified the Kyoto Protocol. The Kyoto Protocol was to be implemented in two phases with the first phase ending in 2012. The greenhouse gases in question were carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, and sulphur hexafluoride. The treaty aimed for global emissions to have a 5% reduction by 2012 for the first phase. The second phase of the Kyoto Protocol also known as the Doha Amendment had a 2013-2020 timeline but is yet to be implemented.
1. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is a treaty signed in June, 1992 during the Earth Summit in the Brazilian city, Rio de Janeiro. The treaty was attended by all 197 member states of the United Nations and all policies indicated were to be effected by all countries within the United Nations. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change spurred the Kyoto Protocol (1997) and the Paris Agreement (2011). The member countries are divided into five groups known as Annexes; Annex I, Annex II, Annex B, and the Non-Annex I.