The infant mortality rate is calculated over number of deaths per live birth of 1000 infants of less than one year. One of the biggest challenges in both the developed and developing countries in the 20th and 21st Centuries has been to decrease their infant mortality rates. After much hard work and undertaking huge measures, many countries have found huge reduction in the infant mortality rate but there are many other countries still in worse situation. The major reasons responsible are insufficient knowledge of maintaining favorable atmosphere for infants, hygienic problem, sanitation, and insufficient medical facility. Apart from these, the infant loses his/her life while suffering from pneumonia, diarrhea, malnutrition, asphyxia, birth complications, and malaria.
Reasons for High Mortality Rates in Top Three Countries
The infant mortality rate is a major challenge for United Nations in the economically poor and politically weaker countries. The worst affected three countries are Angola, the Central African Republic, and Sierra Leone.
Angola is a country in African continent with highest mortality rate of 96 over 1000 live born children. The reason is basically due to continuous war, which stopped in 2002. Since then the country is moving with 7% growth rate. Angola has 38% of its population under poverty. The political and economical disturbance has destroyed the basic structure of Angola.
Central African Republic
Central African Republic is on the second number with 92 deaths per 1000 live births. The situation has got worse in time. The reason provided is poor economy, huge spread over of HIV/AIDS, lack of safe water, sanitation and healthcare measures. The economic problem is so worse that 67% of the population leaves under $1 a day. Illiteracy among people is also a huge problem as only 51% of children have attended school and in conflicted areas, only 25% have enrolled in schools. Due to lack of medical facilities and hospitals, many women give birth to their children at home, which is another reason for high mortality rates.
Sierra LeoneThe third number is of Sierra Leone, which has an infant mortality rate of 87. Female genital mutilation and polygamy is one of the reasons for higher mortality rates. The shortage of safe drinking water in the country has resulted in the outbreak of fatal diseases, which infants are especially prone towards. There have been 3,706 cases reported of Ebola that took 1,259 lives. It also affected many children. The poor economy and strict and inhuman laws towards women have made the condition worse.
Steps Taken By The Government And UNICEF In Controlling Infant Mortality Rates
The important point to understand before taking measure is that, these places have been affected by wars and had remained isolated from the mainstream. The unstable government and complex laws have broken the rib of the country. Moreover, poor economies have made the situation worse. UNICEF and the governments of these countries have been working together to remove misunderstandings in childbirth. There have been measures taken to reduce illiteracy, polygamy, inhumane laws, and unawareness. The government and UNICEF have setup many medical hospitals and nursing homes. The schools have also benefited children in developing their lives and careers. Although these are steps in the right direction, there are many measures still needed to be taken to reduce the infant mortality rates.
Countries With The Highest Infant Mortality Rates
|Rank||Country||Infant Mortality Rate (per 1000 live births), 2015|
|2||Central African Republic||92|
|5||Democratic Republic of Congo||75|