The climate of Africa ranges from tropical to subarctic on its highest peaks. The movement of the monsoon trough, creates a rainy season across central portions of the continent. Its northern half is primarily desert or arid, while its central and southern areas contain both savanna plains and very dense jungle regions. Temperatures are hottest within the Sahara desert and cooler across the south and in the eastern section of the continent where the mountain ranges are.
The desert covers most of the northern half of the continent, containing the Sahara desert, while its southern areas contain both savanna plains, and its central portion contains very dense jungle (rainforest) regions. The equatorial region near the monsoon trough is the wettest portion of the continent. Annually, the rain belt across the continent marches northward into Sub-Saharan Africa by August, then moves back southward into south-central Africa by March.