What Are The Two Types Of Reproduction In Animals?

By Antonia Čirjak on May 9 2020 in Environment

Reproduction is most often defined as the biological process in which other organisms create new organisms.
  • During asexual reproduction an organism is able to reproduce without the ''help'' of another organism.
  • Sexual reproduction involves the combination of genetic material from two organisms.
  • When organisms reproduce sexually, they have different sets of genes for each and every of their traits.

Reproduction is most often defined as the biological process in which other organisms create new organisms. The newly created organisms are referred to as the “offspring,” while those that create them are the “parents.” All known life reproduces, which means that all living things are the result of reproduction. There are two types of reproduction in animals, and those are sexual and asexual.

Asexual reproduction means that an organism can reproduce without involving another organism; they do it themselves. Sexual reproduction, on the other hand, requires the interaction of two organisms. The offspring that are produced through sexual reproduction share genetic characteristics from its two parental organisms.

Asexual Reproduction

Asexual reproduction is a process where organisms create copies of themselves without the contribution or help of a second organism. These copies are either genetically similar or completely identical to the parent. Some examples of asexual reproduction include bacteria that divide through binary fission or viruses that take over hosts to be able to produce even more viruses. Other species that reproduce asexually are hydras and yeasts, using a process called budding.

Many of these organisms do not possess different sexes and mostly just split themselves into two copies. Some species of jellyfish can reproduce asexually, but also sexually. Other species that share the same ability are certain plants. However, those are not animals, so we will not talk about them in detail here. There are multiple other ways organisms can reproduce asexually. Some of those include fragmentation, spore formation, and parthenogenesis. The latter is interesting because it involves the growth of an embryo but without the involvement of fertilization.

Sexual Reproduction

Sexual reproduction is a process in which new organisms are created through a combination of genetic material from two other organisms. This process starts with meiosis. Meiosis is a type of cell division in which both parents contribute half of the genetic makeup of their offspring. They do so by creating haploid gametes, which are specialized cells. These types of species are called anisogamous, and they feature two sexes, the male and the female.

There are also isogamous species, where the gametes are either similar or identical to each other. However, they do have some different properties, so we can refer to them by different names. For example, in certain species, we refer to them as the plus and minus gametes. Some organisms have more than two sexes. These include various funghi. The majority of plants and animals reproduce sexually. This also includes humans.

Organisms that reproduce sexually have different sets of genes for each of their traits. They inherit one set for each trait from each of their parents. This is why the offspring have a combination of genes from both of the parents. Some organisms reproduce sexually but also often use asexual reproduction, such as bryophytes. This allows their offspring to have a wider range of traits, meaning they are able to survive longer. This is especially helpful during the changes in the environment.

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