The 10 Species of Pigs

A domestic pig in a meadow.

A pig is an animal found in the genus Sus and the family Suidae. Pigs range from domestic to wild pigs that are considered to be the ancestor of all pigs. These animals are widely known to be omnivores, and their variety of food is similar to that of human beings. In fact, there are so many considerable similarities between pigs and humans that pigs are often used for human medical research.

10. Javan Warty Pig

The species name of this pig is Sus verrucosus. Javan pig originated from three Islands found in Indonesia called Bawean, Java and Mandura. These regions are mainly forested with an altitude ranging from sea level to 800 meters above sea level. A Javan warty pig has a weight of between 44 to 108 kg and a length of 90 to 190 cm. The distinctive characteristics of this pig are its skinny legs and large body. Their age is determined by the sizes of their warts, as the older the pig, the larger the warts. The warty pig is mostly active during the night. The average lifespan of this pig is eight years though some live to be as old as 14 years. Javan warty pig is an omnivore as it feeds on vegetation and small mammals. It is one of the rear species, and it is among the endangered with a population of about 377 individuals. Efforts have therefore been put in place to conserve them.

9. Domestic Pig

The scientific name of the domestic pig is sus scrofa domesticus. It can also be referred to as swine. The length of this pig ranges from 90 to 180 cm, and an adult pig weight range from 50 to 350 kg. The domestic pig is widely famous because of the consumption of their meat known as pork. Archeological evidence points out that the domestic pig was domesticated from wild boars. This pig has a gestation period of between 112 to 120 days. The Domestic pig lacks sweat glands, meaning it is unable to maintain its body temperatures naturally. This makes pigs resort to behavioral thermoregulation such as covering their body with mud. One common behavior of a domestic pig is nest-making. Due to the increase in needs for human transplants, the domestic pig is the leading non-human organ donator to humans since their organ size is relatively comparable to that of a human.

8. Wild Boar

The other common name of the wild boar is the wild swine. The wild boar originated in southeast Asia before later spreading to the rest of the world. This pig is believed to be the common ancestor of many pig species. Its body structure is massively built and with short and thin legs. Wild boars are omnivores. Its population has decreased over time due to hunting and human encroachment which has made the wild boars disappearance deep into the wild forest. It became extinct in Britain in the early 11th century, and it was only reintroduced in the 1980s through importation.

7. Philippine Warty Pig

Sus philippensis, or Philippine warty pig, has its native origin in the Philippines. Philippine warty pig has a close relation to the Bornean bearded pig. Much of its natural habitat has been lost due to hunting and deforestation.

6. Oliver's Warty Pig

Sus oliveri is also referred to as Oliver's Warty Pig or Mindoro Warty Pig.This pig is a small pig in the genus Sus and is only found in Mindoro Islands in the Philippines. Initially, it was thought to be a subspecies of S. philippensis but was later proven to be genetically different. It is known to be a species that is heavily hunted, leading to its classification as being extremely rare.

5. Celebes Warty Pig

Celebes warty pig, or Sus celebensis, is also known as the Sulawesi pig as it is found in Sulawesi in Indonesia. The Sulawesi pig is a medium sized animal that is still largely found in Sulawesi Parts of Indonesia. It can survive in most habitats, and it can even thrive in altitudes of up to 2500 meters above sea level. Frequent hunting has led to the reduction in their population over the years, however conservation efforts have been put in place to prevent extinction.

4. Visayan Warty Pig

The binomial name of the Visayan warty pig species is Sus cebifrons. It is one of the most endangered species of pigs. Its native origin is the Visayan Islands of Philippines. The main causes of endangerment are hunting, habitat loss and food shortage.This pig is mostly an omnivore as it eats roots, fruits tubers and some small animals found in the forest. They can also eat cultivated crops since farmers have cultivated their habitats.

3. Heude's Pig

Heude’s pig binomial name is Sus bucculentus. Its other name is Vietnam warty pig or the Indochinese warty pig that is found in Vietnam and Laos. This species of a pig was thought to have been extinct until recently when its skull was discovered in the Annamite Range in Laos in the year 1995. Heude’s physical appearance is not known. The skull that was found showed some similarities with the wild boar and some scientist have suggested that it could be identical with the Wild boar species.

2. Bornean Bearded Pig

Bornean bearded pig, or Sus barbatus, is sometimes just referred to as as bearded pig. Its distinctive feature from the rest of the species is its beard. This breed of pig is endemic to the southeastern part of Asia in the Borneo, Sumatra and Malay Peninsula where there is mangrove and rainforest cover. This type of pig often lives in families and begins reproduction at the age of approximately 18 months.

1. Palawan Bearded Pig

Sus ahoenobarbus is also known as the Palawan bearded pig. Palawan is native to the Philippines in the Archipelago islands comprising of Palawan, Balabac, and the Calamian Islands.Palawan bearded pig has a length of between 100 to 160 cm, 1 meter tall and a weight of up to 150 kg.This species was considered to be a subspecies of Bornean Bearded pig, but more studies have proven that it is a different species altogether.


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