Most of Turkmenistan is dominated by the flat Garagum (or Kara Kum) Desert (north to south), a sandy, scrubby, arid expanse of land, with very little agricultural potential.
The Kopetdag Mountain Range covers its south-central border with Iran, where earthquakes are quite common. The Pamir Mountain Range extends across it's far eastern border - where its highest point is located, Gora Ayribaba which peaks at 10,298 ft. (3,139 m).
Along the Caspian Sea and the shorelines of Sarykamish Lake, land elevations below sea level stretch inland for many miles.
The country's most significant river is the Amu Darya, which flows across and along its border with Uzbekistan.