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Lebanon History Timeline

BC
  • (1200s BC) Phoenicians invented the alphabet, created Tyrian Purple (dye)
  • (774 BC) Reign of King Pygmalion of Tyre ended
  • (724 BC) Assyrians began a four-year siege of Tyre
  • (710 BC) Judah, Tyre, Sidon revolted against Assyria
  • (587 BC) Region annexed to Babylonian empire
  • (555 - 333 BC) Persian period of rule
  • (332 - 64 BC) Hellenistic period. Alexander the Great took over Tyre, after his death, there were a series of Hellenistic rulers
  • (140 BC) Beirut was destroyed by Diodotus Tryphon
  • (64 BC) Beirut was conquered by Agrippa
451 AD - 1600s
  • (451) Christian community of Maronites sought refuge in mountains of Lebanon
  • (551) Earthquake and tsunami destroyed Beirut, killed 30,000 within the city, over 250,000 along coast
  • (630) A group of autonomous Maronite communities settled in Mount Lebanon following conquest of Syria
  • (632 - 661) Islam brought to area surrounding Lebanon by Caliph Abu Bakr
  • (661) Muawiyah I, founder of the Umayyad dynasty, became governor of Syria, included Lebanon
  • (986) New religion, the Druze, was founded by Ad-Darazi
  • (1110) Crusaders captured Beirut and Sidon
  • (1124) Tyre surrendered to the Crusaders
  • (1291) Shia Muslims, Druze rebelled against Mamluks
  • (1308) Mamluks crushed rebellion
  • (1516) A semi-autonomous reign of Lebanon was granted to Emir Fakhr ad-Din I by Ottoman Sultan Selim I
  • (1570 - 1635) Fakhr ad-Din II reigned
  • (1613) After failure to defeat Ahmad al Hafiz of Damascus, Fakhr ad-Din II was exiled to Tuscany
  • (1618) Fakhr ad-Din returned to Lebanon
  • (1622) Battle of Anjar between Ottoman army and Fakhr ad-Din II's army took place
  • (1635) Fakhr ad-Din executed after army defeated
1800s
  • (1840) British and Ottoman troops landed on Lebanon's coast
  • (1840 - 1858) On-going conflicts between the Druze and Maronite
  • (1857) Wine industry started when Jesuit monks founded Chateau Ksara in Bekaa Valley
  • (1860) War erupted between Druze and Maronites
  • (1860) Napoleon III of France sent 7,000 troops to Beirut, helped establish a partition: Druze controlled the territory, Maronites forced into an enclave
  • (1880) Jordan, Palestine, Lebanon were part of Syria under Ottoman rule
  • (1887) Villager discovered royal tomb with 18 marble sarcophagi in underground chambers near Sidon

1900s

  • (1912) In first act of war against Ottoman Empire, Italy bombed Beirut
  • (1914-1918) World War I
  • (1914) Jamal Pasha military occupied Lebanon
  • (1915) Blockade of eastern Mediterranean coast established by Jamal Pasha, thousands of Lebanese died from famine and plagues
  • (1916) 21 Syrians and Lebanese were executed by Turkish authorities for alleged anti-Turkish activities
  • (1916) Sykes-Picot Agreement put Syria and Lebanon under French control, Britain claimed Jordan, Iraq, Gulf States, Palestinian Mandate
  • (1920) France was granted mandate for Lebanon and Syria by the League of Nations, formed the State of Greater Lebanon
  • (1926) Constitution approved by Lebanese Representative Council and Lebanon Republic was established
  • (1940) Lebanon came under Vichy French government control
  • (1941) Lebanon proclaimed independence
  • (1943) French relinquished remaining control and Lebanon gained independence
  • (1943) Bishara al-Khuri elected first president of Lebanon
  • (1943) Power-sharing agreement was established, which called for the president to be a Maronite Christian, the prime minister to be a Sunni Muslim and the speaker of the chamber of deputies a Shia Muslim
  • (1946) British and French troops withdrew from Lebanon
  • (1946) Lebanon became member of United Nations
  • (1948) Palestinian refugees arrived in Lebanon following Israel statehood
  • (1948) Constitution was amended allowing Bishara al-Khuri to run for second term as president
  • (1948) General strike protesting corruption and opposition to Khuri government forced Khuri's resignation, Camille Chamoun became president

Lebanon Photographs

Photos used are from public domain sources and from en.wikipedia.org

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