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Egypt History Timeline

Prehistoric Egypt
  • (10,500 BC) wild grain harvesting began along the Nile River Delta
  • (8000 BC) humans began migrating to the Nile, developing a more centralized and settled society
  • (6000 BC) single-sailed row boats were depicted in Egyptian rock art
  • (4th millennium BC) Gerzean tomb-building began
3rd millennium BC
  • (3900 BC) increasingly dry conditions in the Sahara caused migration to the Nile Valley
  • (3100 BC) Upper and Lower Egypt unified by Pharaoh Narmer
  • (3100 BC) the early Dynastic Period began; hieroglyphics developed as a formal writing system
  • (3000 BC) Egyptians began to measure time based on a calendar of three natural cycles: the solar day, the lunar month, and the solar year
2nd millennium BC
  • (2890 BC) the second dynasty in Egypt founded by Hetepsekhemwy
  • (2800 BC) mining of the Sinai began
  • (2700 BC) papyrus, a thin paper-like material, was developed for writing on
  • (2660 BC) the first fortress on the Nile is built by Pharaoh Kasekhemwy following the unification of north and south Egypt
  • (2650 BC) the Step Pyramid at Saqqara was built for King Djoser, making it the first Egyptian pyramid
  • (2649 BC) the third dynasty is founded by Zanakht
  • (2575 BC) the Great Pyramids of Egypt were built in Dahshur and Giza; the 4th dynasty is founded by Sneferu
  • (2515 BC) the Sphinx is built for Khephren
  • (2465 BC) the 5th dynasty is founded by Userkhaf
  • (2184 BC) Egypt's Old Kingdom crumbled after the death of Pepi II
  • (2134 BC) Egypt is divided into the two smaller states of Memphis in the north and Thebes in the south
  • (2055 BC) the age of the Middle Kingdom began
  • (2040 BC) Nebhetepre Mentuhotep I reunited Egpyt, making Thebes the capital
  • (2000 BC) obelisks are constructed at Heliopolis
1st millennium BC
  • (1991 BC) Amenemhet I seized power during the 12th dynasty and moved the capital of Egypt to Ith-Tawy; the "Wall of the Prince" is erected in Sinai to protect Egypt from invasion
  • (1962 BC) Senusret I succeeded Amenemhet and expands the region; fortress were built at Semna and Kerma
  • (1640 BC) Hyksos, a Semitic people from Palestine, seized power in Northern Egypt along the Delta; horse-driven chariots are introduced
  • (1550 BC) the age of the New Kingdom began under the ruling of Ahmose I
  • (1532 BC) the Hyksos are defeated and expelled from Egypt by Ahmose I
  • (1525 BC) Ahmose I dies and is succeeded by Amenhotep I
  • (1504 BC) Tuthmosis I succeeded Amenhotep
  • (1492 BC) Tuthmosis became first pharaoh buried in the "Valley of the Kings"
  • (1458 BC) Tuthmosis III conquered Syria
  • (1450 BC) Egyptians began using the sundial
  • (1319 BC) Horemheb moved the capital back to Memphis
  • (1307 BC) Horemheb is succeeded by Ramesses I; the capital of Egypt moved to Avaris
  • (1300 BC) Egyptians build a canal connecting the Nile River and the Red Sea
600 BC - 0 AD
  • (669 BC) Egypt conquered by Assyrians and Mesopotamia
  • (332 BC) Alexander the Great invaded Egypt; the New Kingdom ended ushering in an era ruled by Greek Kings; the city of Alexandria is founded
  • (196 BC) the Rosetta Stone is carved in Greek and Egyptian
  • (51 BC) Cleopatra VII becomes queen Egypt
  • (31 BC) Greek ruling of Egypt ended after the Roman conquest
100s AD - 1800s
  • (250 AD) Diophantus wrote "Arithmetica" on algebraic equations and the theory of numbers
  • (394 AD) the last hieroglyph is inscribed at Philae
  • (641 AD) Arabs conquered Egypt, ending Roman rule; Egyptians converted to Islam
  • (642 AD) the library of Alexandria is destroyed
  • (969 AD) Cairo established as capital of Egypt
  • (1517) Egypt is absorbed into the Ottoman Empire
  • (1859) construction began on the Suez Canal
  • (1869) Suez Canal is completed
  • (1882) British troops invaded Egypt

1900s

  • (1914) Egypt became a British protectorate
  • (1922) Egypt gained independence; Faud I becomes king
  • (1928) the Muslim Brotherhood is founded
  • (1948) Egypt, along with Iraq, Jordan, and Syria attacked the new state of Israel
  • (1952) anti-British riots erupted in Cairo, at least 20 killed
  • (1953) Muhammad Najib staged coup; Egypt declared a republic with Najib as president
  • (1954) Gamal Abdel Nasser becomes prime minister; remaining British forces vacated
  • (1956) Egypt invaded by Britain, France, and Israel following the nationalization of Suez Canal, a ceasefire is issued one month later
  • (1958) Egypt and Syria joined to form the United Arab Republic (UAR)
  • (1961) Syria withdrew from UAR union with Egypt; Egypt remained as the UAR
  • (1967) Egypt and Jordan signed defense pact
  • (1967) six day war began with Egypt, Israel, Jordan, and Syria; Israel gained control of Sinai, Golan Heights, the Gaza Strip, East Jerusalem, and the West Bank
  • (1970) Anwar al-Sadat became president following the death of Nasser
  • (1971) Egypt and the Soviet Union signed a Treaty of Friendship
  • (1971) a new constitution is introduced; Egypt is renamed the Arab Republic of Egypt
  • (1971) the Aswan High Dam is completed
  • (1975) the Suez Canal is reopened after its closure during the six day war in 1967
  • (1976) the Treaty of Friendship with the Soviet Union is ended
  • (1978) a peace treaty with Israel is signed
  • (1981) Anwar al-Sadat is assassinated; Hosni Mubarak is assigned president
  • (1989) Egypt rejoined the Arab League
  • (1997) 58 tourists are killed by gunmen from Egypt's Islamic Group (al-jama'ah al'islamiyah)
  • (1999) Mubarak entered his 4th term in office
2000s
  • (2000) an agreement between Egypt, Lebanon, and Syria is reached for a pipeline to carry Egyptian gas under the Mediterranean to Tripoli
  • (2004) Israeli tourists attacked on Sinai peninsula, 34 people are killed
  • (2005) anti-government activists stage demonstrations
  • (2005) a constitutional amendment allowing multiple candidates in presidential elections is backed by a referendum vote
  • (2005) clashes between police and opposers of the Muslim Brotherhood erupted following the Parliamentary polls
  • (2006) a ferry carrying 1,400 passengers from Saudi Arabia to Egypt sinks in the Red Sea killing nearly 1,000 people
  • (2011) Egyptians staged nationwide demonstrations against President Mubarak; Mubarak stepped down amidst protests, turning power over to the military; the parliament is dissolved and the constitution is suspended
  • (2012) new parliamentary and presidential elections are held; Mohamed Morsi is elected president
  • (2012) Morsi granted himself greater power and immunity; widespread protests reignited
  • (2013) a period of civil unrest continued with mass protesting; Morsi is deposed of in a coup headed by Abdul Fatah al-Sisi and the Egyptian armed forces on July 3rd, and is replaced by the chief justice of the Supreme Constitutional Court
  • (2013) a month-long state of emergency is declared across Egypt amidst widespread and bloodied protests
  • (2014) a new constitution (prepared in 2013) was enacted on January 18th after a 98% approval of the people's votes; presidential and parliamentary elections are expected to be held in the following 6-months
  • (2014) Morsi's supporters were sentenced to death; Morsi's own trial remained ongoing as of March 24th

Egypt Photographs

Photos used are from public domain sources and from en.wikipedia.org

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This page was last modified on April 7, 2017.