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Estonia Geography

Geography

Almost completely surrounded by water, much of Estonia's land is low and flat (close to sea level).

Estonia has 3,794 km (2,357 mi) of coastline indented by numerous bays, straits, and inlets. The number of islands and islets is estimated at some 1,500; most are small with a few large islands off the western coastline.

Central and south, the land is hillier, rising to its highest point - the Munamagi - at 1,042 ft. (318m). The country's average elevation reaches only 50 meters (164 ft).

Over 1,400 small lakes dot the western parts of the country. The largest lakes includes Peipus and Pskov, (shared with Russia) and Lake Vorts-Jarv.

Rivers of size include the Emojogi, Manamagi and Parnu.

Geography Estonia
Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland, between Latvia and Russia

Geographic coordinates:

59 00 N, 26 00 E

Map references:

Europe

Area:

total: 45,226 sq km
land: 43,211 sq km
water: 2,015 sq km
note: includes 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea

Area - comparative:

slightly smaller than New Hampshire and Vermont combined

Land boundaries:

total: 633 km
border countries: Latvia 339 km, Russia 294 km

Coastline:

3,794 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: limits fixed in coordination with neighboring states

Climate:

maritime, wet, moderate winters, cool summers

Terrain:

marshy, lowlands; flat in the north, hilly in the south

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Suur Munamagi 318 m

Natural resources:

oil shale, peat, phosphorite, clay, limestone, sand, dolomite, arable land, sea mud

Land use:

arable land: 16.04%
permanent crops: 0.45%
other: 83.51% (2001)

Irrigated land:

40 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:

sometimes flooding occurs in the spring

Environment - current issues:

air polluted with sulfur dioxide from oil-shale burning power plants in northeast; however, the amount of pollutants emitted to the air have fallen steadily, the emissions of 2000 were 80% less than in 1980; the amount of unpurified wastewater discharged to water bodies in 2000 was one twentieth the level of 1980; in connection with the start-up of new water purification plants, the pollution load of wastewater decreased; Estonia has more than 1,400 natural and manmade lakes, the smaller of which in agricultural areas need to be monitored; coastal seawater is polluted in certain locations

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ship Pollution, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:

the mainland terrain is flat, boggy, and partly wooded; offshore lie more than 1,500 islands

Note: The information tabled directly above was researched by and provided by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency

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estonia countryside

The flat landscape of Estonia Pimik at en.wikipedia

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This page was last modified on August 12, 2015.