Yugoslavia was a state in Southeast Europe in the 20th century. It was formed in 1918 after the First World War through the merger of the provisional State of Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs. The country was the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in October 1929. The monarchy was abolished in 1945 and was renamed the Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia in 1946. Yugoslavia was made up of six socialist republics including Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Croatia, Montenegro, Slovenia, and Macedonia. Serbia contained two autonomous provinces: Vojvodina and Kosovo. Yugoslavia first broke into five countries leading the Yugoslavia War with Serbia and Montenegro breaking up in 2006. Kosovo became an independent state in 2008.
Breakup of Yugoslavia
Breakup of Yugoslavia
The breakup of Yugoslavia was brought about by political conflicts around the beginning of the 1990s. The constituent republics of Yugoslavia split and unresolved issues led to the Yugoslavia War which affected mainly Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Yugoslav model was successful and the country underwent a period of peace and economic growth up until 1980 under the leadership of Josip Broz Tito. After his death in 1980, the federal government system weakened to the point where it could not sustain the rising economic and political challenges. Kosovo Albanians began demanding that their autonomous province be granted a status of a constituent state leading to the 1981 protest. In 1987, Slobodan Milosevic assumed power in Serbia and acquired de facto control over Kosovo and Montenegro. He was met with opposition from party leaders of Slovenia and Croatia who campaigned for greater democratization of the country. The League of Yugoslavia was dissolved in 1990 along federal lines. In 1991, several republics claimed their independence with only Serbia and Montenegro remaining federated.
Independence and the New States
Yugoslavia was finally split into seven countries, with Kosovo being the latest to gain independence. Bosnia and Herzegovina proclaimed independence in 1992 which was immediately followed by the Bosnia War lasting until 1995. The country has recovered from the shadows of the war to become one of the most frequented countries in the world. It has displayed positive economic progress ranking it among the world’s growing economy. Croatia achieved independence on June 25, 1991, with the full implementation of the declaration coming in October 1991. However, the tension in the country escalated into averts war when the country was attacked by Yugoslav People’s Army, reducing Croatia to control only two-thirds of its territory. Croatia was recognized by the EEU members and the UN on January 15, 1992. Unrest ended in 1995. Kosovo attained its independence from Serbia on February 18, 2008, and has since become a member of international institutions such as the World Bank and the IMF. The Parliament of Montenegro declared the country’s independence on June 3, 2006, after a referendum which was not objected by Serbia. Macedonia celebrates September 8, 1991, as its independence day with the 2nd of August also celebrated as Day of the Republic. In Serbia, the National Assembly of Serbia declared the country a legal successor of Yugoslavia on June 5, 2006, followed by the declaration of Kosovo’s independence in 2008 which made Serbia an independent state.
"Yugosphere" was a term coined by The Economists in 2009 to describe the present day physical areas that defined Yugoslavia. The similarity of languages and the long association with Yugoslavia have left ties among the people of the new states. The people still interact at an individual, group, and state levels with strong bonds and association between the different new states. The remembrance of the positive attributes during the joint time is often referred to as "Yugonostalgia".
Which Present Day Countries Once Comprised Yugoslavia?
|Rank||Present Day Countries Once Part Of Yugoslavia||Capital|
|1||Bosnia and Herzegovina||Sarajevo|