Government of Russia
The government of Russia is considered a federal semi-presidential republic, according to the 1993 Constitution. Under a semi-presidential structure, the President, and the Prime Minister share governing responsibilities as the head of state and head of government, respectively. The President does, however, hold more power. Multiple political parties are represented throughout the government and its administration. Three branches share the responsibilities of running the country: the executive branch, the legislative branch, and the judicial branch.
The Role Of The President Of Russia
The President acts as the head of the executive branch of the Russian Government and is elected by the general population to serve a 6-year term. This office is limited to 2 consecutive terms. The President is heavily involved in both the domestic and foreign policies of the country. This includes appointing foreign ambassadors, participating in international discussions, and signing international treaties and agreements. Additionally, this official is Commander-in-Chief of the military and has the power to veto any laws or policies set forth by the legislative branch. The President of Russia also has the ability to establish laws without review or approval by other governmental bodies. This power is beyond what a President typically has under this type of governmental systems.
Executive Branch Of The Government Of Russia
Under direction from the President is the remainder of the executive branch. This branch consists of the Cabinet, which is also referred to as the Government. Its members include the Prime Minister, deputy prime ministers, and federal ministers. The federal ministers carry out the duties of ministries and departments. The President nominates both the Parliament as well as the Prime Minister, the legislative branch, must approve the nomination. After this, the Prime Minister then nominates deputy prime ministers and federal ministers. The executive branch is responsible for administering laws created by the legislative branch and the President.
Legislative Branch Of The Government Of Russia
The legislative branch has two branches: the 166 member Federation Council and the 450 member State Duma. The Federation Council represents the matters of the federal subjects of Russia, the political divisions of the country. The Council works to pass legislation by voting on policies and regulations that the State Duma has approved. Decisions on laws require at least a 51% vote. For constitutional amendments, however, a 75% vote is required. The State Duma has the power to overrule a veto from the Federation Council. The Duma is the first parliamentary body to receive and decide on new law proposals. In addition, the State Duma approves the presidential appointment of Prime Minister and reviews annual reports from the executive branch of government.
Judicial Branch Of The Government Of Russia
The judicial branch ensures that the laws of Russia are upheld. It is separated into 3 kinds of courts: general jurisdiction, arbitration, and constitutional. General jurisdiction courts consist of municipal courts at the lowest level, regional courts at the middle level, and the Supreme Court at the highest level. These courts oversee criminal and civil cases. Arbitration courts are responsible for issues of property and commercial disputes. The highest level of this type of judicial body is the Supreme Court of Arbitration. These judges of the Constitutional Court have the power to interpret laws and presidential decrees and overturn any that they consider unconstitutional. The President recommends nominees for judges of the highest courts and the Federation Council decides on and appoints these nominations.