World Facts

What Happened On March 1st In...?

The founder of Rome celebrated his first Roman triumphus, a banished Napoleon returned to France, and the Articles of Confederation became the young United States' first Constitution.

March 1st marks the 60th day of the year in non-leap years. In the Northern Hemisphere, this date falls around 2.5 weeks before the Spring Equinox. The 1st of March is, statistically speaking, more prone to occur on a Tuesday, Thursday, or Sunday than other days of the week. This article takes a look at some of the most important historical events that have occurred on March 1.

Important Historical Events on March 1

Rome Defeats Caenina

One of the earliest recorded notable March 1st event dates back to 752 BC, when Rome defeated Caenina. This conflict took place after The Kidnapping of The Sabine Women, a moment in history when Roman men attempted to negotiate with the neighboring Sabines to find wives. Rome, during this time, had a higher male population and not enough potential wives. The Sabines declined. Romulus, the Roman leader, later invited the Sabines and Latins to a horse race in Rome. When the visiting men became drunk, the Romans kidnapped their female companions. The opposing sides went to battle and Romulus killed Acron, the King of Caenina, and divided the land among the Romans.

Rio de Janeiro Founded

Over 2,000 years later, Rio de Janeiro of Brazil was founded on March 1, 1565 AD. Portuguese explorers landed on the present-day Brazilian coastline in 1502. The importance of its strategic location spread throughout Europe and by 1555, France had colonized one of the islands off the coast. Hoping to gain control of the area, the Portuguese founded Rio de Janeiro in 1565 to use it as a base for attacking French colonizers.

Articles of Confederation Adopted as a U.S. Constitution by Continental Congress

On this day in 1781, the Continental Congress of the United States of America enacted the Articles of Confederation. This document served as the first Constitution of the original 13 colonies for 9 years, when the federal government and a new Constitution were adopted. The Articles of Confederation gave the newly formed Congress a framework from which to carry out the Revolutionary War and conduct relations with the Native American peoples and the governments of Europe.

Napoleon Returns to France from Elba

March 1st also marks the date of Napoleon Bonaparte's return to France from his banishment. Following his defeats, Napoleon was exiled from France and banished to the island of Elba in the Mediterranean Sea. He spent less than a year here before escaping on February 26, 1815. He left the island accompanied by approximately 700 men and landed on the shores of France on March 1, 1815. An army was sent to stop him, but joined Napoleon’s cause instead. This union began the Hundred Days, the period of time that Napoleon attempted to take the throne before being defeated at the Battle of Waterloo.

March 1st in the 21st Century

One of the most significant events to have occurred on March 1st in the 21st Century was the inauguration of the International Criminal Court (ICC) in The Hague, Netherlands. The ICC is an intergovernmental tribunal that tries cases of crimes against humanity, genocide, and war crimes. This court accepts cases when national governments are not able to prosecute an alleged criminal or when a case is referred by the UN Security Council. The idea for the ICC dates back to the early 20th Century, but it was not formally established until July of 2002. The first 18 judges were chosen in February of 2003 and sworn in on March 1, 2003.

What Happened On March 1st In...?

Events Occurring on March 1st Through HistoryYear
Romulus, Rome's founder and legendary first king, celebrates his victory over nearby Caenina.752 BC
Rio de Janeiro is founded in present day Brazil by Portuguese colonizers.1565 AD
The United States' Continental Congress adopts the Articles of Confederation.1781
Napoleon returns to France from Elba to where he was banished.1815
Yellowstone in the United States becomes the first national park in the world.1872
Japanese forces capture Java during World War II.1942
IRA member Bobby Sands begins his hunger strike against British actions while in prison. Sands would starve to death.1981
Bosnia and Herzegovina declares independence from Yugoslavia.1992
The Ottawa Mine Ban Treaty goes into effect, limiting the use of anti-personnel mines around the world.1999
The International Criminal Court (ICC) holds its first session in The Hague, Netherlands.2003

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