Society

Population By Country

As India vies for China's top spot, an ever-rising global population places ever greater strain on earth's resources.

Global Population Growth Throughout History

The global population has been an ever-changing statistic since the beginning. Around 10,000 BC, when humans learned to cultivate crops, the population was estimated to be between 1 million and 15 million. This number grew to approximately 55 million in the Roman Empire alone during the 4th century AD, however, dropped by as much as 50% due to the Plague of Justinian between the 6th and 8th centuries. Humans bounced back over the next 600 years or so until the Black Death plague that reduced the population from 450 million to 350 million. This event occurred at the same time a famine and Mongol invasions in Asia dropped the population by 50%. Since that time, the 1300’s, world population has consistently grown.

Life expectancies also began to increase around the time of the Industrial Revolution as there was a reliable food availability. This movement was followed by the invention of vaccines and public sanitation measures that contributed to elongating years lived. The population in Europe and the United States grew exponentially from the 1800’s until present day growing from 10 million to 60 million in the United Kingdom and 5 million to 307 million in the United States. The same growth was seen throughout the Soviet Union until the middle of the 1900’s when the area suffered drastic population losses due to famine, war, and disasters. The population in Russia continued to decline from 150 million in the early 1990’s to 143 million in 2012; it did not begin to increase again until 2013.

Current Population Trends

Currently, the world’s population is estimated to be 7.4 billion. Although population trends fluctuate depending on the region, the global pattern is one of consistent growth. In fact, the 20th century had the greatest jump in growth ever recorded, moving from 1.6 billion in the year 1900 to 6 billion in the year 2000. During the 1960’s, expected growth rate was around 2.19%, but that number has decreased to 1.14% in recent years.

China holds the number 1 spot for most heavily populated with 1.36 billion people, and India follows closely with 1.25 billion. If current trends continue, India will surpass China in population during the next five years. This is due to a decreasing fertility rate in Chinese women and a simultaneous increase in Indian women. Japan and some European countries have also been slightly declining in population because of reduced fertility numbers. African countries are expected to see a population boom, doubling their numbers by 2050. The reason is because nearly half the population, 41%, is under 15 years of age. As those individuals get older, they will begin to reproduce, and the growth will be rampant.

Strain on Natural Resources

As humans continue to take over the space on earth, resource scarcity will continue to be a growing problem. Experts believe that the number of people the earth can sustainably support is only 7.7 billion. Living standards in developing countries are beginning to reach developed world standards thereby increasing life expectancy around the world. Many countries have already experienced violent protests in response to food shortages which were in response to increasing petroleum prices, and the number of malnourished individuals has continued to rise.

The increasing use of natural resources, like natural gas, oil, and coal, has led to an unprecedented rise in greenhouse gas emissions. This rise in emissions has been causing greater environmental changes, leading to hotter temperatures, glacial melting, natural disasters, and drought. These factors will continue to influence the availability of food. Other groups of people have been battling access to fresh water, another scarce resource.

Future Population Estimates

The UN estimates that global population will reach 9.55 billion by 2050, and that half of that population will be located in Asian countries. Another quarter, 25%, will be living on the African continent. These two continents will account for 75% of the world’s population. It is expected that European populations will continue to decline, Latin America will see a small decline, as will North America and Oceania will grow by 0.1%. The prediction is based on fertility and death estimates are therefore difficult to predict. At any given time, the world could experience another plague or famine that would leave populations decimated.

Population By Country

Rank Country Population, 2015
1 CHINA 1,367,485,388
2 INDIA 1,251,695,584
3 UNITED STATES 321,368,864
4 INDONESIA 255,993,674
5 BRAZIL 204,259,812
6 PAKISTAN 199,085,847
7 NIGERIA 181,562,056
8 BANGLADESH 168,957,745
9 RUSSIA 142,423,773
10 JAPAN 126,919,659
11 MEXICO 121,736,809
12 PHILIPPINES 100,998,376
13 ETHIOPIA 99,465,819
14 VIETNAM 94,348,835
15 EGYPT 88,487,396
16 IRAN 81,824,270
17 GERMANY 80,854,408
18 TURKEY 79,414,269
19 DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO 79,375,136
20 THAILAND 67,976,405
21 FRANCE 66,553,766
22 UNITED KINGDOM 64,088,222
23 ITALY 61,855,120
24 BURMA 56,320,206
25 SOUTH AFRICA 53,675,563
26 TANZANIA 51,045,882
27 SOUTH KOREA 49,115,196
28 SPAIN 48,146,134
29 COLOMBIA 46,736,728
30 KENYA 45,925,301
31 UKRAINE 44,429,471
32 ARGENTINA 43,431,886
33 ALGERIA 39,542,166
34 POLAND 38,562,189
35 UGANDA 37,101,745
36 IRAQ 37,056,169
37 SUDAN 36,108,853
38 CANADA 35,099,836
39 MOROCCO 33,322,699
40 AFGHANISTAN 32,564,342
41 NEPAL 31,551,305
42 MALAYSIA 30,513,848
43 PERU 30,444,999
44 VENEZUELA 29,275,460
45 UZBEKISTAN 29,199,942
46 SAUDI ARABIA 27,752,316
47 YEMEN 26,737,317
48 GHANA 26,327,649
49 MOZAMBIQUE 25,303,113
50 NORTH KOREA 24,983,205
51 MADAGASCAR 23,812,681
52 CAMEROON 23,739,218
53 TAIWAN 23,415,126
54 IVORY COAST 23,295,302
55 AUSTRALIA 22,751,014
56 SRI LANKA 22,053,488
57 ROMANIA 21,666,350
58 ANGOLA 19,625,353
59 BURKINA FASO 18,931,686
60 KAZAKHSTAN 18,157,122
61 NIGER 18,045,729
62 MALAWI 17,964,697
63 CHILE 17,508,260
64 SYRIA 17,064,854
65 MALI 16,955,536
66 NETHERLANDS 16,947,904
67 ECUADOR 15,868,396
68 CAMBODIA 15,708,756
69 ZAMBIA 15,066,266
70 GUATEMALA 14,918,999
71 ZIMBABWE 14,229,541
72 SENEGAL 13,975,834
73 RWANDA 12,661,733
74 SOUTH SUDAN 12,042,910
75 GUINEA 11,780,162
76 CHAD 11,631,456
77 BELGIUM 11,323,973
78 TUNISIA 11,037,225
79 CUBA 11,031,433
80 PORTUGAL 10,825,309
81 BOLIVIA 10,800,882
82 GREECE 10,775,643
83 BURUNDI 10,742,276
84 CZECHIA 10,644,842
85 SOMALIA 10,616,380
86 DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 10,478,756
87 BENIN 10,448,647
88 HAITI 10,110,019
89 HUNGARY 9,897,541
90 SWEDEN 9,801,616
91 AZERBAIJAN 9,780,780
92 BELARUS 9,589,689
93 HONDURAS 8,746,673
94 AUSTRIA 8,665,550
95 TAJIKISTAN 8,191,958
96 SWITZERLAND 8,121,830
97 JORDAN 8,117,564
98 ISRAEL 8,049,314
99 TOGO 7,552,318
100 BULGARIA 7,186,893
101 SERBIA 7,176,794
102 HONG KONG 7,141,106
103 LAOS 6,911,544
104 PARAGUAY 6,783,272
105 PAPUA NEW GUINEA 6,672,429
106 ERITREA 6,527,689
107 LIBYA 6,411,776
108 LEBANON 6,184,701
109 EL SALVADOR 6,141,350
110 NICARAGUA 5,907,881
111 SIERRA LEONE 5,879,098
112 UNITED ARAB EMIRATES 5,779,760
113 SINGAPORE 5,674,472
114 KYRGYZSTAN 5,664,939
115 DENMARK 5,581,503
116 FINLAND 5,476,922
117 SLOVAKIA 5,445,027
118 CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC 5,391,539
119 TURKMENISTAN 5,231,422
120 NORWAY 5,207,689
121 GEORGIA 4,931,226
122 IRELAND 4,892,305
123 COSTA RICA 4,814,144
124 REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO 4,755,097
125 CROATIA 4,464,844
126 NEW ZEALAND 4,438,393
127 LIBERIA 4,195,666
128 BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA 3,867,055
129 PANAMA 3,657,024
130 PUERTO RICO 3,598,357
131 MAURITANIA 3,596,702
132 MOLDOVA 3,546,847
133 URUGUAY 3,341,893
134 OMAN 3,286,936
135 ARMENIA 3,056,382
136 ALBANIA 3,029,278
137 MONGOLIA 2,992,908
138 JAMAICA 2,950,210
139 LITHUANIA 2,884,433
140 KUWAIT 2,788,534
141 WEST BANK 2,785,366
142 NAMIBIA 2,212,307
143 QATAR 2,194,817
144 BOTSWANA 2,182,719
145 MACEDONIA 2,096,015
146 LATVIA 1,986,705
147 SLOVENIA 1,983,412
148 GAMBIA 1,967,709
149 LESOTHO 1,947,701
150 KOSOVO 1,870,981
151 GAZA STRIP 1,869,055
152 GUINEA-BISSAU 1,726,170
153 GABON 1,705,336
154 SWAZILAND 1,435,613
155 BAHRAIN 1,346,613
156 MAURITIUS 1,339,827
157 ESTONIA 1,265,420
158 TIMOR-LESTE 1,231,116
159 TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO 1,222,363
160 CYPRUS 1,189,197
161 FIJI 909,389
162 DJIBOUTI 828,324
163 COMOROS 780,971
164 BHUTAN 741,919
165 EQUATORIAL GUINEA 740,743
166 GUYANA 735,222
167 MONTENEGRO 647,073
168 SOLOMON ISLANDS 622,469
169 MACAU 592,731
170 SURINAME 579,633
171 WESTERN SAHARA 570,866
172 LUXEMBOURG 570,252
173 CABO VERDE 545,993
174 BRUNEI 429,646
175 MALTA 413,965
176 MALDIVES 393,253
177 BELIZE 347,369
178 ICELAND 331,918
179 THE BAHAMAS 324,597
180 BARBADOS 290,604
181 FRENCH POLYNESIA 282,703
182 VANUATU 272,264
183 NEW CALEDONIA 271,615
184 SAMOA 197,773
185 SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE 194,006
186 SAINT LUCIA 163,922
187 GUAM 161,785
188 CURACAO 146,836
189 ARUBA 112,162
190 GRENADA 110,694
191 TONGA 106,501
192 KIRIBATI 105,711
193 MICRONESIA 105,216
194 VIRGIN ISLANDS 103,574
195 SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES 102,627
196 JERSEY 97,294
197 ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA 92,436
198 SEYCHELLES 92,430
199 ISLE OF MAN 87,545
200 ANDORRA 85,580
201 DOMINICA 73,607
202 MARSHALL ISLANDS 72,191
203 BERMUDA 70,196
204 GUERNSEY 66,080
205 GREENLAND 57,733
206 CAYMAN ISLANDS 56,092
207 AMERICAN SAMOA 54,343
208 NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS 52,344
209 SAINT KITTS AND NEVIS 51,936
210 TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS 50,280
211 FAROE ISLANDS 50,196
212 SINT MAARTEN 39,689
213 LIECHTENSTEIN 37,624
214 BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS 33,454
215 SAN MARINO 33,020
216 SAINT MARTIN 31,754
217 MONACO 30,535
218 GIBRALTAR 29,258
219 PALAU 21,265
220 ANGUILLA 16,418
221 WALLIS AND FUTUNA 15,613
222 TUVALU 10,869
223 COOK ISLANDS 9,838
224 NAURU 9,540
225 SAINT HELENA, ASCENSION, AND TRISTAN DA CUNHA 7,795
226 SAINT BARTHELEMY 7,237
227 SAINT PIERRE AND MIQUELON 5,657
228 MONTSERRAT 5,241
229 FALKLAND ISLANDS 3,361
230 NORFOLK ISLAND 2,210
231 SVALBARD 1,872
232 CHRISTMAS ISLAND 1,530
233 TOKELAU 1,337
234 NIUE 1,190
235 HOLY SEE (VATICAN CITY) 842
236 COCOS (KEELING) ISLANDS 596
237 PITCAIRN ISLANDS 48

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