Economics

Countries Requiring The Most Property Registration Procedures

Brazil requires more procedures to register property than any other country, followed by Nigeria and Eritrea.

Brazil

Brazil requires the most steps of any country when it comes to registering property, as there are fourteen steps necessary there to carry out such registrations. The first step involves going to the Regional Labor Court to acquire a Labor Justice Certificate. The second step involves going to the Distributor of Disputes Registry to obtain ten certificates of Registries and Disputes. The third step involves going go the City Court Office to acquire a Bankruptcy Certificate, a Fiscal Executive Certificate and a Civil Distributor's Certificate. The next two steps involve obtaining a Certificate of Good Standing on Labor Debts and a 20 years certificate. Step six involves going to City Hall to request and obtain a Land-Tax Certificate and a Cadastral Certificate. The seventh step involves receiving a Federal Tax Clearance Certificate and a Clearance Certificate from Tax Agency. The eighth step involves obtaining a Worker's Fund Certificate from a federal bank. Step nine involves going to the Receita Federal and obtaining a Federal Justice Certificate. The tenth step involves giving the notary the information of the company or person registering for the property. Despite all of these steps, in most cases all of this can be done in a day or less if done online. Step eleven involves going to the local commercial bank to pay the transfer tax and any other fees from the first ten steps. The twelfth step involves the public notary drafting the Public Deed of Purchase and Sale for the property. The last two steps take place simultaneously as the transfer deed for the property is officially registered at the designated Real Estate Registry that has the authority over the property to finalized the property changing hands. Then the Real Estate Registry will update the land taxation records to reflect the new owner's name on everything at City Hall.

Nigeria

In Nigeria, there are twelve steps that are required for one to register property. The first step is to go to the Commissioner of Oaths to receive a sworn affidavit for search. The second step involves going to the Land Registry to conduct a property title search. The next two steps involve obtaining the Execution of Deed of Assignment/Conveyance and a Land Form 1C, then obtaining a Certified True Copy of the Survey plan and the Certified True Copy (CTC) of title document. In the fifth step the charting fee, endorsement fee and Form 1C must be payed for at the designated bank location. In the sixth step an application must be sent to the Governor's Consent tot go through processing and to obtain a Title. In the seventh step the survey plans that have been charted of the property must be attached to the property deeds. In the next two steps the Demand Notice for Registration fees, Consent fees, and Neighborhood improvement charges must be handled at the Land Registry, as well as the receiving of a Demand Notice for Stamp Duty. In the tenth step the Stamp duty, Registration fees, Consent fees and Neighborhood improvement charge must be payed for at the designated commercial bank. In the eleventh step the receipts that are received for paying all of the already listed fees and duties must be submitted as proof of payment. In the eleventh step the deed of assignment for the property is stamped and lastly the Registration of Certificate of Occupancy is officially conferred to the new property owner.

Eritrea

In Eritrea there are eleven steps that are required to register property. The first step it to obtain tax clearance from the Inland Revenue. It takes around seven days to compete this process and the owner of the property must pay for any unpaid taxes on buildings it they are owed. The next three steps in the process involved receiving tax clearance from the Commercial Bank of Eritrea, the Housing and Commercial Bank Agency and from the Municipality. The fifth step is to obtain a mortgage clearance from the Cadastral Office to make sure that the property is free from any mortgage. These first five steps are all done in the same day and associated fees with each process must be paid. The sixth step is to submit all documents and clearances involved in registration to the Public Notary Office to be examined. Once the documents have been cleared they are sent to the Department of Infrastructure. The seventh step is that the Department of Infrastructure creates a new map of the property that complies with building regulations and sends it back to the Public Notary. The buyer then must pay 9% of the property value base on the price they agreed to pay for the property. The next two steps involved the buyer of the property paying any necessary taxes at the Municipality and Inland Revenue Offices. The tenth step involves the Public Notary Office approving the contact with the buyer, seller and two witnesses present. Then the Public Notary Office sends the documents to the Cadastral Office. The last step involves submitting registration at the Cadastral Office to complete the property buying process.

Liberia

The first step in the process to register property in Liberia requires the parties involved to obtain a Transfer Deed. The Transfer Deed is needed so that a surveyor can officially survey the property. The next two steps are done simultaneously. The buyer of the property contacts a licensed surveyor so that the property can be surveyed. Before the survey, the surveyor has to notify the public by newspaper and radio with information regarding the survey, the date it will take place, and the location of the property. During this notice period the property cannot be surveyed as it gives any person claiming ownership time to dispute the sale. If no one comes forward to dispute the sale, then the survey takes place. This whole process usually takes three weeks. The fourth step is that the buyer and the seller of the property hire a lawyer to start the official property transfer process but giving the lawyer the deed on which the sketch of the property has been done by the surveyor. The next two steps involve the lawyer visiting the Center for National Documents and Records (CNDRA) to verify the current status and ownership of the property and then the Real Estate Division of the Bureau of the Internal Revenue of the Ministry of Finance to see if the property has an outstanding taxes on it. The seventh step has the lawyer bring the parties involves to there office to officially sign the deed form. The eight step has the lawyer visit the Probate Court with the signed deed to request the property transfer and then the court approves the sale after five days if there are no objections to it. The ninth step has the parties going to the Land Registry office, with the require documents, to officially register the deed. The final step involves the buyer and the seller going to the Bureau of Internal Revenues to officially change the name of the owner on the property.

Algeria

The first two steps in obtaining property in Algeria have a notary involved in the property transfer, first to obtain the cadastral (survey) document from the owner of the property, and then to obtain the certificate of non-encumbrance from the Conservation Foncière (Land Registry). It takes around two weeks for the notary to obtain these documents. The third step has the notary have the parties involved in the property transfer meet at their office with any relevant documents, they the notary will review. Then the notary issues the buyer of the property a order of payment for 20% of the purchasing price of the property. The fourth step has the buyer go to the Trésor Public (Public Revenue Office) to pay the required publication and registration fees into the notary's account. The fifth step has the notary draft up the contract that both parties sign and gives them provisional copies of their parts. The sixth step has the notary go to the Recette des Impôts (Local Tax Authorities) to pay the registration fees and any potential outstanding taxes. The seventh step has the notary file the signed deed and all relevant documents at the Service de l’Enregistrement et du Timbre (Registry of Deeds). The eighth step has the seller of the property go to the Sous Direction du Recouvrement des Impôts (Local Tax Office) to file the tax declaration and proof of payment. In the ninth step the notary will then deliver the check for the amount of deposit to the seller, assuming their have been no objections from the tax office in the previous thirty days. The final step in the process has the notary go to the Conservation Foncière to pay for the publication fee to be issued a copy new property deed.

Uganda

In Uganda, the first step in obtaining property has the parties involved go to the Registry of Lands to request a search for the property being sold, obtain a Bank Advice Form (BAF) to pay for the search, and also to request a consent form. The second step involved going to the designated Commercial Bank in the area and paying the search fee to the Registry of Lands and paying the Stamp Duty from the Consent form. The third step has the buyer and seller of the property go back to the Registry of Lands to conduct the search and receive the consent to transfer form. The fourth step is not legally required but it is common practice that the parties involved hire a lawyer to draft the property sale agreement. The fifth step has a valuer at the Chief Government Valuer's Office do a evaluation on the property for the purpose of the transfer and tax purposes. The sixth step has the approved files from the valuer go to the Uganda Revenue Authority to provide a assessment form for the Stamp duty and name the designated bank involved in the transfer. The seventh step involves going to the designated bank and paying the stamp duty. The eighth step involves going to the Registry of Lands at the Kampala Capital City Authority and giving them the appropriate documentation and the sale agreement. They will give back the buyer a registration fee to pay. The ninth step involves payment of the registration free to the Registry of Lands at the designated bank. The finals step involves transferring all appropriate documents to the Registry of Lands. Once at the Registry the documents are reviews and the land transfer is made official by the Registrar and the Commissioner.

Solomon Islands

In the Solomon Islands, the first step involved in property registration is to have the Land Department check for any property ownership issues or encumbrances. In the second step, the buyer and the seller go to the Registry of Titles Office to obtain tax clearance and make sure there were no encumbrances. The third step is not legally required but it is common practice to have the Survey Department at the Ministry of Land confirm the boundary of the property in question. The fourth step involves hiring a surveyor, either from the Ministry of Land or from a private company, to survey the property that is being sold. This process usually takes around 20 days. The fifth step is to go to the Commissioner of Lands to receive official consent to transfer the property. The process usually takes around 25 days. The next two steps are done simultaneously as lawyers are hired to prepare, review, sign the transfer contract and verify the registration of the buyer. The eighth step is that the transfer contract must be notarized at the Registry of Titles Office by a notary, solicitor or civil servant. The fee for notarizing the contract must also be paid. The ninth step is to pay the Stamp Duty to the Inland Revenue on every document that is eligible and has been used in the property registration process. Finally the transfer must be officially registered at the Registry Titles Office.

Greece

In Greece, the first step in property registration involves hiring an engineer to visit the site and draft a topographic plan. The second step involves the engineer working on the topographic site plan and having a certificate for the the absence of non-licensed construction. The third step involves a hired lawyer searching form information on the property at the Real Estate Office of the Land Registry and then later preparing the sale agreement. In the next two steps the seller of the property a tax obtains clearance certificate on themselves and a certificate on the Real Estate Unified Tax from the Tax Authority. They also must obtain a certificate of good standing from the Social Security Institute. In the sixth step the buyer and the seller must go to the Tax Authority and pay the property transfer tax. In the seventh step the draft of the sales agreement that the lawyer wrote must be presented to the Bar Association. In the eighth step the notary checks all documentation in the property registration to make sure it is legitimate. Then the notary notarizes the sales agreement and prepares the transfer the public deed. During the process the buyer, seller and lawyers involved are present and must sign off. In the ninth step the deed the notary transferred arrives at the Land Registry, where it is recorded officially under the name of the buyer. Finally, the transfer of property is registered at the Cadastre (Ktimatologio) and checked one last time for legality.

Countries Requiring The Most Property Registration Procedures

RankCountryProcedures Required to Register Property
1Brazil14
2Nigeria12
3Eritrea11
4Liberia10
5Algeria10
6Uganda10
7Solomon Islands10
8Greece10

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